palettes - Mapping values onto the domain of a scale

Palettes are the link between data values and the values along the dimension of a scale. Before a collection of values can be represented on a scale, they are transformed by a palette. This transformation is knowing as mapping. Values are mapped onto a scale by a palette.

Scales tend to have restrictions on the magnitude of quantities that they can intelligibly represent. For example, the size of a point should be significantly smaller than the plot panel onto which it is plotted or else it would be hard to compare two or more points. Therefore palettes must be created that enforce such restrictions. This is the reason for the *_pal functions that create and return the actual palette functions.

mizani.palettes.hls_palette(n_colors=6, h=0.01, l=0.6, s=0.65)[source]

Get a set of evenly spaced colors in HLS hue space.

h, l, and s should be between 0 and 1

Parameters:
  • n_colors (int) -- number of colors in the palette
  • h (float) -- first hue
  • l (float) -- lightness
  • s (float) -- saturation
Returns:

palette -- List of colors as RGB hex strings.

Return type:

list

See also

husl_palette()
Make a palette using evenly spaced circular hues in the HUSL system.

Examples

>>> len(hls_palette(2))
2
>>> len(hls_palette(9))
9
mizani.palettes.husl_palette(n_colors=6, h=0.01, s=0.9, l=0.65)[source]

Get a set of evenly spaced colors in HUSL hue space.

h, s, and l should be between 0 and 1

Parameters:
  • n_colors (int) -- number of colors in the palette
  • h (float) -- first hue
  • s (float) -- saturation
  • l (float) -- lightness
Returns:

palette -- List of colors as RGB hex strings.

Return type:

list

See also

hls_palette()
Make a palette using evenly spaced circular hues in the HSL system.

Examples

>>> len(husl_palette(3))
3
>>> len(husl_palette(11))
11
mizani.palettes.rescale_pal(range=(0.1, 1))[source]

Rescale the input to the specific output range.

Useful for alpha, size, and continuous position.

Parameters:range (tuple) -- Range of the scale
Returns:out -- Palette function that takes a sequence of values in the range [0, 1] and returns values in the specified range.
Return type:function

Examples

>>> palette = rescale_pal()
>>> palette([0, .2, .4, .6, .8, 1])
array([0.1 , 0.28, 0.46, 0.64, 0.82, 1.  ])

The returned palette expects inputs in the [0, 1] range. Any value outside those limits is clipped to range[0] or range[1].

>>> palette([-2, -1, 0.2, .4, .8, 2, 3])
array([0.1 , 0.1 , 0.28, 0.46, 0.82, 1.  , 1.  ])
mizani.palettes.area_pal(range=(1, 6))[source]

Point area palette (continuous).

Parameters:range (tuple) -- Numeric vector of length two, giving range of possible sizes. Should be greater than 0.
Returns:out -- Palette function that takes a sequence of values in the range [0, 1] and returns values in the specified range.
Return type:function

Examples

>>> x = np.arange(0, .6, .1)**2
>>> palette = area_pal()
>>> palette(x)
array([1. , 1.5, 2. , 2.5, 3. , 3.5])

The results are equidistant because the input x is in area space, i.e it is squared.

mizani.palettes.abs_area(max)[source]

Point area palette (continuous), with area proportional to value.

Parameters:max (float) -- A number representing the maximum size
Returns:out -- Palette function that takes a sequence of values in the range [0, 1] and returns values in the range [0, max].
Return type:function

Examples

>>> x = np.arange(0, .8, .1)**2
>>> palette = abs_area(5)
>>> palette(x)
array([0. , 0.5, 1. , 1.5, 2. , 2.5, 3. , 3.5])

Compared to area_pal(), abs_area() will handle values in the range [-1, 0] without returning np.nan. And values whose absolute value is greater than 1 will be clipped to the maximum.

mizani.palettes.grey_pal(start=0.2, end=0.8)[source]

Utility for creating continuous grey scale palette

Parameters:
  • start (float) -- grey value at low end of palette
  • end (float) -- grey value at high end of palette
Returns:

out -- Continuous color palette that takes a single int parameter n and returns n equally spaced colors.

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> palette = grey_pal()
>>> palette(5)
['#333333', '#737373', '#989898', '#b5b5b5', '#cccccc']
mizani.palettes.hue_pal(h=0.01, l=0.6, s=0.65, color_space='hls')[source]

Utility for making hue palettes for color schemes.

Parameters:
  • h (float) -- first hue. In the [0, 1] range
  • l (float) -- lightness. In the [0, 1] range
  • s (float) -- saturation. In the [0, 1] range
  • color_space ('hls' | 'husl') -- Color space to use for the palette
Returns:

out -- A discrete color palette that takes a single int parameter n and returns n equally spaced colors. Though the palette is continuous, since it is varies the hue it is good for categorical data. However if n is large enough the colors show continuity.

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> hue_pal()(5)
['#db5f57', '#b9db57', '#57db94', '#5784db', '#c957db']
>>> hue_pal(color_space='husl')(5)
['#e0697e', '#9b9054', '#569d79', '#5b98ab', '#b675d7']
mizani.palettes.brewer_pal(type='seq', palette=1)[source]

Utility for making a brewer palette

Parameters:
  • type ('sequential' | 'qualitative' | 'diverging') -- Type of palette. Sequential, Qualitative or Diverging. The following abbreviations may be used, seq, qual or div.
  • palette (int | str) -- Which palette to choose from. If is an integer, it must be in the range [0, m], where m depends on the number sequential, qualitative or diverging palettes. If it is a string, then it is the name of the palette.
Returns:

out -- A color palette that takes a single int parameter n and returns n colors. The maximum value of n varies depending on the parameters.

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> brewer_pal()(5)
['#EFF3FF', '#BDD7E7', '#6BAED6', '#3182BD', '#08519C']
>>> brewer_pal('qual')(5)
['#7FC97F', '#BEAED4', '#FDC086', '#FFFF99', '#386CB0']
>>> brewer_pal('qual', 2)(5)
['#1B9E77', '#D95F02', '#7570B3', '#E7298A', '#66A61E']
>>> brewer_pal('seq', 'PuBuGn')(5)
['#F6EFF7', '#BDC9E1', '#67A9CF', '#1C9099', '#016C59']

The available color names for each palette type can be obtained using the following code:

import palettable.colorbrewer as brewer

print([k for k in brewer.COLOR_MAPS['Sequential'].keys()])
print([k for k in brewer.COLOR_MAPS['Qualitative'].keys()])
print([k for k in brewer.COLOR_MAPS['Diverging'].keys()])
mizani.palettes.gradient_n_pal(colors, values=None, name='gradientn')[source]

Create a n color gradient palette

Parameters:
  • colors (list) -- list of colors
  • values (list, optional) -- list of points in the range [0, 1] at which to place each color. Must be the same size as colors. Default to evenly space the colors
  • name (str) -- Name to call the resultant MPL colormap
Returns:

out -- Continuous color palette that takes a single parameter either a float or a sequence of floats maps those value(s) onto the palette and returns color(s). The float(s) must be in the range [0, 1].

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> palette = gradient_n_pal(['red', 'blue'])
>>> palette([0, .25, .5, .75, 1])
['#ff0000', '#bf0040', '#7f0080', '#3f00c0', '#0000ff']
mizani.palettes.cmap_pal(name=None, lut=None)[source]

Create a continuous palette using an MPL colormap

Parameters:
  • name (str) -- Name of colormap
  • lut (None | int) -- This is the number of entries desired in the lookup table. Default is None, leave it up Matplotlib.
Returns:

out -- Continuous color palette that takes a single parameter either a float or a sequence of floats maps those value(s) onto the palette and returns color(s). The float(s) must be in the range [0, 1].

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> palette = cmap_pal('viridis')
>>> palette([.1, .2, .3, .4, .5])
['#482475', '#414487', '#355f8d', '#2a788e', '#21918c']
mizani.palettes.cmap_d_pal(name=None, lut=None)[source]

Create a discrete palette using an MPL Listed colormap

Parameters:
  • name (str) -- Name of colormap
  • lut (None | int) -- This is the number of entries desired in the lookup table. Default is None, leave it up Matplotlib.
Returns:

out -- A discrete color palette that takes a single int parameter n and returns n colors. The maximum value of n varies depending on the parameters.

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> palette = cmap_d_pal('viridis')
>>> palette(5)
['#440154', '#3b528b', '#21918c', '#5cc863', '#fde725']
mizani.palettes.desaturate_pal(color, prop, reverse=False)[source]

Create a palette that desaturate a color by some proportion

Parameters:
  • color (matplotlib color) -- hex, rgb-tuple, or html color name
  • prop (float) -- saturation channel of color will be multiplied by this value
  • reverse (bool) -- Whether to reverse the palette.
Returns:

out -- Continuous color palette that takes a single parameter either a float or a sequence of floats maps those value(s) onto the palette and returns color(s). The float(s) must be in the range [0, 1].

Return type:

function

Examples

>>> palette = desaturate_pal('red', .1)
>>> palette([0, .25, .5, .75, 1])
['#ff0000', '#e21d1d', '#c53a3a', '#a95656', '#8c7373']
mizani.palettes.manual_pal(values)[source]

Create a palette from a list of values

Parameters:values (sequence) -- Values that will be returned by the palette function.
Returns:out -- A function palette that takes a single int parameter n and returns n values.
Return type:function

Examples

>>> palette = manual_pal(['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e'])
>>> palette(3)
['a', 'b', 'c']
mizani.palettes.xkcd_palette(colors)[source]

Make a palette with color names from the xkcd color survey.

See xkcd for the full list of colors: http://xkcd.com/color/rgb/

Parameters:colors (list of strings) -- List of keys in the mizani.external.xkcd_rgb dictionary.
Returns:palette -- List of colors as RGB hex strings.
Return type:list

Examples

>>> palette = xkcd_palette(['red', 'green', 'blue'])
>>> palette
['#e50000', '#15b01a', '#0343df']
>>> from mizani.external import xkcd_rgb
>>> list(sorted(xkcd_rgb.keys()))[:5]
['acid green', 'adobe', 'algae', 'algae green', 'almost black']
mizani.palettes.crayon_palette(colors)[source]

Make a palette with color names from Crayola crayons.

The colors come from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Crayola_crayon_colors

Parameters:colors (list of strings) -- List of keys in the mizani.external.crayloax_rgb dictionary.
Returns:palette -- List of colors as RGB hex strings.
Return type:list

Examples

>>> palette = crayon_palette(['almond', 'silver', 'yellow'])
>>> palette
['#eed9c4', '#c9c0bb', '#fbe870']
>>> from mizani.external import crayon_rgb
>>> list(sorted(crayon_rgb.keys()))[:5]
['almond', 'antique brass', 'apricot', 'aquamarine', 'asparagus']
mizani.palettes.cubehelix_pal(start=0, rot=0.4, gamma=1.0, hue=0.8, light=0.85, dark=0.15, reverse=False)[source]

Utility for creating continuous palette from the cubehelix system.

This produces a colormap with linearly-decreasing (or increasing) brightness. That means that information will be preserved if printed to black and white or viewed by someone who is colorblind.

Parameters:
  • start (float (0 <= start <= 3)) -- The hue at the start of the helix.
  • rot (float) -- Rotations around the hue wheel over the range of the palette.
  • gamma (float (0 <= gamma)) -- Gamma factor to emphasize darker (gamma < 1) or lighter (gamma > 1) colors.
  • hue (float (0 <= hue <= 1)) -- Saturation of the colors.
  • dark (float (0 <= dark <= 1)) -- Intensity of the darkest color in the palette.
  • light (float (0 <= light <= 1)) -- Intensity of the lightest color in the palette.
  • reverse (bool) -- If True, the palette will go from dark to light.
Returns:

out -- Continuous color palette that takes a single int parameter n and returns n equally spaced colors.

Return type:

function

References

Green, D. A. (2011). "A colour scheme for the display of astronomical intensity images". Bulletin of the Astromical Society of India, Vol. 39, p. 289-295.

Examples

>>> palette = cubehelix_pal()
>>> palette(5)
['#edd1cb', '#d499a7', '#aa688f', '#6e4071', '#2d1e3e']